It is within this context, first, of political independence and self‐defence and, second, of fully backed currency issue, that the context of social policies in Singapore can be best explained. This housing grant will be allocated to the CPF account of the applicants (HDB 2016). The objectives of SASW are: Advance Social Work as a profession and foster a high standard of Social Work in the country. Subsequently, major components of the Singaporean welfare state are discussed. In 2006, the opposition share of the vote was 35 per cent. The share of the population aged 65 and over has rapidly increased from 7.3 per cent in 2000 to 11.7 per cent in 2015 (figure 6). Publicly constructed housing on state land on a 99‐year lease was started in 1927 by the British government, under which Singapore was a part of the colony of the then‐Straits Settlements comprising Singapore, Malacca and Penang. Special Issue: Regional Issue: Managing Welfare Expectations and Social Change: Policy Responses in Asia. Financially, Singapore can afford a welfare state for those in need, said Eugene Tan, an associate professor of law at Singapore Management University who comments widely about local politics. Social and public assistance (e.g. The government has provided subsidy for low‐ and middle‐income enrollees, as well as the ‘pioneer’ generation (i.e. However, the Singaporean welfare state is different from other cases in the East Asian welfare regime. However, the British government encountered financial difficulties and announced in 1967 the withdrawal of its large army, air force and naval forces in Singapore which at that time accounted for 10 per cent of the Singapore economy.11 See‐02‐10.html (accessed 30 July 2016). Find out more about the support for Singaporeans affected by COVID-19. In this article, two points are highlighted for the Singaporean welfare state. Another policy direction is to provide ‘protective’ social policies that protect people's finances from future risks. Numerous studies debate whether and how welfare states can evolve with changing political, social and economic conditions. With higher income inequality, low‐ and middle‐income groups are vulnerable to adverse shocks. For example, the ownership rate in Hong Kong was only about 51 per cent in 2014.33 See (accessed 30 July 2016). Both corporate and individual tax rates are low compared with many other countries (e.g. While the government gives little in direct monetary aid, it invests heavily in high quality public education, health care and housing. Meeting the rising welfare demand of citizens while, at the same time, keeping labour and capital costs competitive is one major challenge. Although Singapore's overall government social expenditure is smaller compared to some other countries, the role of the state in the social policy areas, with regard to the political and economic contexts, is significant. The Pioneer Generation Package is another initiative targeting the elderly ‘pioneer’ generation. Before the 1980s, government expenditure on education focused on massive primary education, in which basic skills in English, mathematics and science were highlighted (Pereira 2008). Singapore emphasises what people see in other East Asian countries: on the one hand, the subordination of public welfare to economic growth and development and, on the other, reliance on the … Agencies under MSF. Given the rationales of political survival and economic growth strategy, the amount of social protection expenditure, including assistance for unemployment, social insurances and direct health expenditure of the government, is limited. Medisave, a health saving account under the CPF, can be used to cover health expenditures for individuals and household. education performance indicated in the Programme for International Student Assessment [PISA] and health outcomes in life expectancy), Singapore ranks remarkably high, even when compared with developed countries. cleaners; Ministry of Manpower 2016b). The first is a value argument. Beyond the Limits of the Productivist Regime: Capturing Three Decades of East Asian Welfare Development with Fuzzy Sets. Second, ageing is another significant structural change in recent years. Policies, including the CPF, housing, education and health, are designed to support economic growth by increasing the saving rate and accumulating human capital. In this context, social policies (e.g. You can contact us by phone: (01) 6734545. For example, the government health expenditure in Singapore accounted for 1.34 per cent of GDP, whereas in Japan and Korea, it accounted for approximately 8.32 per cent and 3.82 per cent in 2011, respectively (World Bank 2016). Manufacturing/construction and service sectors’ share in employment. In the literature, Singapore is considered as a ‘productivist’ welfare regime in East Asia (Holliday 2000), under which the social policies are ‘subordinated’ to economic policies. CPF) has been implemented to finance social expenditure. (1947). trade conditions, labour market structure) are used in order to understand the types of social insurance policy being implemented in developing countries (Mares and Carnes 2009). health, workfare) have been adjusted to these changes. The ratio between the wage income earned by individuals in the highest decile (i.e. The CPF is also important for social assistance and workfare programmes, many social assistance and workfare benefits are paid into individual CPF accounts (Ng 2011). The Caregivers Training Grant (CTG) helps caregivers to enhance their capabilities in caring for the physical and socio-emotional needs of persons with disabilities or the elderly. Both the enrollment and expenditure of the Institute of Technical Education and Polytechnics have been increasing since 2000s (figure 1). Most East Asian economies have invested heavily in education, healthcare and workfare because their social policies play a supportive role for economic policies (Walker and Wong 2005). Downloadable! The emergence of working poor families now is an issue to be addressed (Mathew and Ng 2016). ​The Certificate of Entitlement (COE) Grant Scheme is a grant to support the cost of COE and Additional Registration Fee (ARF) for vehicles used to transport clients who are elderly or persons with disabilities who are unable to use public transport unassisted or other transport options. In the literature, the Singaporean welfare belongs to the East Asian Welfare regime – a ‘productivist’ welfare state (Holliday 2000), in which human capital investment is supposedly the main focus of social expenditures. Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. In the context of an increasing number of working poor families in an ageing society, to address the increasing welfare demand, policy responses could follow the ‘productivist’ welfare regime by highlighting policies that invest in human capital in order to handle future risks. ‘decommodification’) is different. The CPF, as a saving scheme, accounted for a large share of national saving and also relieved the government budget from financing social expenditure, thereby making it critical for economic growth. Approximately 80 per cent of the primary care is provided by the private sector, whereas publicly owned clinics provide about 20 per cent (Ministry of Health 2016a). In contrast with many other developed countries, Singapore has a strong ruling party, and has sufficient political capacity to reform existing welfare policies. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: The divergent evolution of East Asian welfare states: Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore. The CPF played a significant role in capital accumulation in the 1970s and the 1980s during the sole control of the Singapore economy. Political separation led to the British withdrawal of armed forces in 1970 (this step was not linked to the separation, but its timing came soon after the separation in 1965). Another unique factor in the Singapore context is the issue of a new Singapore dollar in 1967 to replace the previous Malayan or Straits dollar which had been in circulation since 1906 (Lee 2015). The social and economic conditions in Singapore have also changed. In the late 1960s, the manufacturing sector accounted for 7.2 per cent of GDP; however, in the 1980s, the manufacturing sector accounted for 23.9 per cent of GDP (Huff 1994). Both health and education policies are designed to increase human capital. The government also directly subsidizes public hospitals. The mean years of schooling for non‐students aged 25 and over were 5.6 and 3.7 years for male and female, respectively. For example, high‐quality labour supply has been supported by policies promoting education and healthcare services. While Korea and Taiwan initiated universal social insurances such as national health insurance and unemployment insurance in the 1990s (Croissant 2004; Peng and Wong 2010), the Central Provident Fund (CPF), a compulsory saving scheme, plays the central role in financing social expenditure in Singapore. Social Welfare in Singapore and Sweden: Differences in Organisational Systems of Health Care, Social Security and Rehabilitation - Volume 3 Issue 1 - Inger Olsson, Patrick Millet, Stig Vinberg, Göran Olsson, Alf Bergroth, Bodil J. Landstad expenditure on social insurance, social assistance and labour market programmes) only accounted for approximately 3.5 per cent of GDP in Singapore in 2009, which was significantly lower than Japan (19.2 per cent) and Korea (7.9 per cent) (ADB 2013). Support For Singaporeans Affected by COVID-19, Child Care / Infant Care subsidies / KiFAS, Home Ownership Plus Education (HOPE) Scheme, Employment Assistance for Persons with Disabilities, Car Park Label Scheme for Persons with Physical Disabilities, Foreign Domestic Worker Levy Concession for Persons with Disabilities. Click here for our latest COVID-19 advisories. Buy Quarterly Report, Volumes 65-80 by Singapore Social Welfare Dept online on at best prices. Recent policy changes seem to suggest that the current Singaporean welfare state is searching for a balance between ‘productivist’ and ‘protective’ welfare regimes. In addition, the rationale of self‐reliance and family support, social policies and economic growth strategy, are interdependent. To report suspected child abuse, please visit this page. Click here for COVID-19 FAQs (for families, support schemes, etc) The amount of subsidies varies with the income level of patients. 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